Raw Format Standards Summary

This is simply a summary of my testing various raw formats from various cameras.   It is a “work in progress” and far from complete.   I will post updates as the testing progresses.   Consider all this information to be preliminary.


Basics TIFF Tags Other Tags Exceptions  
Mfg Model Ext Format TIFF IFD EXIF MKNT IPTC CIFF CountNotes endian
Canon 1Ds Mk II CR2 TIFF 6.0 33 4 28 28     4 3 little
Canon 1Ds TIF TIFF 6.0 32 2 24 34 31   0 3 big
Canon 20D CR2 TIFF 6.0 32 4 28 24     3 3 little
Canon D30 CRW CIFF 0 0 0 0 0 39   ? little
Canon D60 CRW CIFF 0 0 0 0 0 49   ? little
Fuji S2 RAF Fuji 19 2 38 16     0 4 big
Fuji S3 RAF Fuji 23 2 41 24     2 4 little
Kodak SLR/n DCR TIFF/EP 86 3 0 0 1   9 2 big
Leaf Aptus MOS TIFF 6.0 19 1 0 0 0   2 5 big
Leaf Valeo MOS TIFF 6.0 18 1 0 0 1   1 5 big
Leica Digilux 2 RAW TIFF V85 34 1 15 15     25 6 little
Leica AGR9 DNG TIFF 6.0 44 2 20 15     1 6 little
Nikon D100 NEF TIFF/EP 41 2 32 32     1 1 big
Nikon D1X NEF TIFF/EP 47 2 32 32     0 0 big
Nikon D2H NEF TIFF/EP 41 2 32 39     1 1 big
Nikon D2X NEF TIFF/EP 50 3 32 47     0 1 big
Nikon D70 NEF TIFF/EP 49 3 21 43     0 1 little
Nikon D70S NEF TIFF/EP 50 3 31 43     0 1 big
Sigma SD10 XCF Foveon               7 n/a
Sony F828 SRF TIFF 6.0 24 2 20 1 0   0 8 little
Olympus E300 ORF TIFF ?? 27 2 28 27 0   1 9 little
Adobe D1X DNG TIFF 6.0 80 3 13 0 0   0 10 little

The Headings:

The “Format” will show the vendor name if the TIFF header did not start at the first byte of the file or could not be found.   The TIFF/EP designates a special tag, so that was used to separate TIFF 6.0 from TIFF/EP.   The TIFF version should be “42” for either.

The TIFF IFD is an Image File Descriptor.   Many files contain various preview images, some with different preview qualities.   The TIFF/EP standard uniquely identifies the primary image. the TIFF 6.0 standard does not.

The count of tag exceptions includes both invalid tag identification or value.   The utility shows “unknown” tag values that relate to image quality and color metrics.   These are the ones sometimes missing, that make it difficult for other software vendors to extract a high quality image.

For more information about this utiity and the report options see the ReadMe link.

Exception Notes:

 1  Nikon   The D100 and D2H each have an unknown EXIF tag (40964).   Private compression is noted where applicble.
2 Kodak   Nine invalid TIFF IDs(33424) & (65000-65003), seem to be private tags.   The image file descriptors (IFDs) do not seem to be following the standard.   Private Compression is noted.   The TIFF/IPTC data tag is totally hosed.   It cannot be used to find the IPTC data.
3 Canon   The 1Ds has an invalid image size, the others have none. The 20D has 3 invalid TIFF IDs(50648, 50649, & 50656).   The 1DS MkII has an additional invalid TIFF ID(50752) and the final data offset pointer is suspicious.
4 Fuji   TIFF 6.0 header at offset 120 for S2 and 160 for S3.   S3 has invalid TIFF ID(50341) and EXIF(42240).
5 Leaf   Many basic metrics such as camera make++ are missing.   Valeo: One invalid TIFF ID(56128).   Aptus: Using XMP and one invalid TIFF ID(34310)
6 Leica   25 invalid TIFF IDs(< 254), all MKNT unknown.   Technically, this is an unknown TIFF version.
7 Sigma   The Foveon ToolKit is needed to parse XCF files.   If there is a TIFF header, it is compressed; against the rules.
8 Sony   Very unusual Makernotes.  
9 Olympus   One invalid TIFF ID(50341).   This might be Print Image Matching Information (PIM)?   This same tag appears in the Fuji S3 and Sony JPG images.   Unknown TIFF version.
10 Adobe DNG   Two thirds of the EXIF tags and all MKNT tags are gone from the D1X image.   Some of these are in the DNG private area?   How do the standard EXIF readers and photo indexing tools access these now?   The imbedded NEF file is 1/2 its original (already compressed) size.

If you are interested in helping with this project by testing other cameras please send me an email.


Rags Gardner
Rags Int., Inc.
204 Trailwood Drive
Euless, TX 76039
(817) 267-2554
Send Email
www.rags-int-inc.com
June 20, 2005

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